The effect of warm up in short distance swimming performance

  • Henrique P. Neiva
  • Mário C. Marques
  • Lara Bacelar
  • Nuno Moínhos
  • Pedro G. Morouço
  • Daniel A. Marinho


Warming up before physical activity is usual and became assumed as essential in competition and training events. It is expected an optimization in performance but the literature is still ambiguous on this subject. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the regular warm-up in 50 m swimming performance, in female swimmers. Seven national-level swimmers (mean ± SD; age 15.3 ± 1.1 years-old, height: 1.61 ± 8.1 m, body mass: 56.5 ± 7.0 kg) volunteered for this study. Each swimmer performed 50 m freestyle at the maximum velocity, after previous warm-up and without performing the same, with 24 h between conditions. Times were registered and capillary blood lactate concentration was assessed after the swimming trial at the 1st and 3rd min of recovery. Additionally, the Borg ratings of perceived exertion scale were used and biomechanical parameters such as stroke frequency, stroke length and stroke index were assessed. The 50 m swimming times were not different with and without warm-up (33.05 ± 2.34 s and 32.71 ± 2.07 s, respectively, p =.40). No differences were found in lactate values (8.63 ± 1.49 mmol·l-1 and 7.93 ± 1.92 mmol·l-1, respectively; p = .71), ratings of perceived exertion (15.86 ± 1.07 and 15.14 ± 1.22, respectively; p =.24), stroke frequency (0.81 ± 0.08 Hz and 0.81 ± 0.04 Hz, respectively; p = .79), stroke length (1.87 ± 0.14 m and 1.89 ± 0.12 m, respectively; p = .74) and stroke index (2.85 ± 0.31 m2 c-1 s-1 and 2.91 ± 0.34 m2 c-1 s-1, respectively; p = .40). These results suggested that regular warm-up used by the swimmers does not influence the 50 m freestyle performance, in female swimmers.


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How to Cite
NEIVA, Henrique P. et al. The effect of warm up in short distance swimming performance. Annals of Research in Sport and Physical Activity, [S.l.], p. p. 83-94, sep. 2012. ISSN 2182-7087. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 24 oct. 2017.
Science and swimming


Evaluation; female; freestyle; lactate; biomechanics